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More than 11,000 athletes from 207 National Olympic Committees, including first time entrants Kosovo, South Sudan, and the Refugee Olympic Team, took part.
These were the first Summer Olympic Games under the International Olympic Committee (IOC) presidency of Thomas Bach.
The host city Rio de Janeiro was announced at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 2 October 2009. Rio became the first South American city to host the Summer Olympics.
These were the first games to be held in a Portuguese-speaking country, the first to be held entirely in the host country's winter, the first since 1968 to be held in Latin America, and the first since 2000 to be held in the Southern Hemisphere.
The lead-up to these Games was marked by controversies, including the instability of the country's federal government; health and safety concerns surrounding the Zika virus and significant pollution in the Guanabara Bay; and a doping scandal involving Russia, which has affected the participation of its athletes in the Games.
The United States topped the medal table for the fifth time in the past six Summer Olympics, winning the most golds (46) and most medals overall (121), as well as its 1,000th Olympic gold medal overall.
Great Britain finished second and became the first country in the history of the modern Olympics to increase its tally of medals in the subsequent games after being the host nation.
China finished third in the medal table record.
Host country Brazil won seven gold medals, its most at any single Summer Olympics, finishing in thirteenth place.
Fiji, Jordan, Kosovo, Puerto Rico, Singapore, Tajikistan, Ivory Coast and Vietnam each won their first gold medals, as did the group of Independent Olympic Athletes (from Kuwait).
The medal design was unveiled on 15 June 2016, produced by the Casa da Moeda do Brasil.
The bronze and silver medals contained 30% recycled materials, while the gold medals were produced using gold that had been mined and extracted using means that met a series of sustainability criteria, such as being extracted without the use of mercury.
The medals feature a wreath design, while the obverse, as is traditional, features Nike, the Greek goddess of victory. They were accompanied by a wooden carrying box, while medalists also received a trophy of the Games' emblem.
The Games required more than 200 kilometers of security fencing. A 15,000 square meters warehouse in Barra da Tijuca in western Rio was used to assemble and supply the furniture and fittings for the Olympic Village. A second warehouse of 90,000 square meters, located in Duque de Caxias near the roads that provide access to the venues, contained all the equipment needed for the sporting events.
The Olympic flame was lit at the temple of Hera in Olympia on 21 April 2016, the traditional start of the Greek phase of the torch relay. On 27 April the flame was handed over to the Brazilian organizers at a ceremony at the Panathenaic Stadium in Athens. A brief stop was made in Switzerland to visit the IOC headquarters and the Olympic Museum in Lausanne as well as the United Nations Office at Geneva.
The torch relay began its Brazilian journey on 3 May at the capital Brasília. The torch relay visited more than 300 Brazilian cities (including all the 26 states capitals and the Brazilian Federal District), with the last part held in the city of Rio de Janeiro, lighting the cauldron during the 2016 Summer Olympics opening ceremony on 5 August.
A total of 7.5 million tickets were to be sold in total, with ticket prices ranging from BRL 40 for many events to BRL 4,600 for the most expensive seats at the opening ceremony. About 3.8 million of these tickets were available for BRL 70 or less.
Twenty-seven world records and ninety-one Olympic records were set during the 2016 Summer Olympics. The records were set in archery, athletics, canoeing, cycling track, modern pentathlon, rowing, shooting, swimming and weightlifting.
The official mascots of the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 24 November 2014. They were created by Sao Paulo-based animation company Birdo. The Olympic mascot Vinicius, named after musician Vinicius de Moraes, represents Brazilian wildlife and carries design traits of cats, monkeys, and birds. According to their fictional backgrounds, the mascots "were both born from the joy of Brazilians after it was announced that Rio would host the Games." Brand director Beth Lula stated that the mascots are intended to reflect the diversity of Brazil's culture and people. The names of the mascots were determined by a public vote whose results were announced on 14 December 2014; the names, which reference the co-writers of the song "The Girl from Ipanema", won over two other sets of names, tallying 44 percent of 323,327 votes. At the Olympic wrestling events, coaches were given plush dolls of Vinicius to throw into the ring when they wished to challenge a referee's call.
The official emblem for the 2016 Summer Olympics was designed by the Brazilian agency Tatíl Design and unveiled on 31 December 2010, winning in a competition against 139 agencies. The logo represents three figures joined at their arms and feet, with the overall shape reflecting that of Sugarloaf Mountain. The emblem was also designed to have a three-dimensional form, which designer Fred Gelli claimed made it the "first 3D logo in the history of the Olympics."
Serena Williams was the defending Olympic champion in tennis singles, but she lost in the third round to Elina Svitolina.
Mónica Puig won Puerto Rico's first ever Olympic gold medal, defeating Angelique Kerber in the final, 6-4, 4-6, 6-1.
Top seed and world number-one Novak Djokovic was defeated in the first round by Juan Martín del Potro with two consecutive tie-breaking sets. This was the second time that del Potro had beaten Djokovic in Olympic competition, following his victory in the bronze medal match in 2012.
Andy Murray defended his 2012 Olympic title by defeating Juan Martín del Potro in the final 7-5, 4-6, 6-2, 7-5, becoming the first tennis player ever, male or female, to win two Olympic singles gold medals.
Bob and Mike Bryan were the defending champions, but they withdrew before the competition as a result of health concerns.
Marc López and Rafael Nadal won the gold medal, defeating Florin Mergea and Horia Tecau in the final, 6-2, 3-6, 6-4.
Serena Williams and Venus Williams were the two-time defending champions and number one seeds, but they lost in the first round to Lucie Safárová and Barbora Strycová. The defeat ended the sisters' 15 match winning streak in women's doubles at the Olympics, and also marked their first loss together in Olympic competition.
Ekaterina Makarova and Elena Vesnina won the gold medal, defeating Timea Bacsinszky and Martina Hingis in the final, 6-4, 6-4.
Victoria Azarenka and Max Mirnyi were the defending champions, but they were not able to defend their title as a result of Azarenka's withdrawal due to pregnancy.
American pair Bethanie Mattek-Sands and Jack Sock won the gold medal, defeating their compatriots Venus Williams and Rajeev Ram in the final, 6-7, 6-1, [10-7].
Australia France, Great Britain, Greece and Switzerland are the only nations to have participated at every Summer Olympic Games of the modern era.
There has been over 3,000 Australian summer Olympians dating back to Edwin Flack at Athens in 1896.
The Rio Games marked 120 years of Australians excelling at the Olympic Games wearing the green and gold.
Australia has won a sensational 512 summer Olympic medals - 150 gold, 170 silver, 192 bronze.
There was a total of 128 athletes, who competed in archery across the four events: the men's individual, women's individual, men's team and women's team.
Track and field events were held at João Havelange Olympic Stadium, while the race walks and marathon start and finish in Recreio dos Bandeirantes and Sambódromo, respectively. Apart from the race walks and marathon, ten track and field events held finals in the morning session for the first time since 1988. This was implemented upon the request of the Rio 2016 Organizing Committee and the Olympic Broadcasting Service to be supported by the International Olympic Committee, ensuring that they received maximum visibility for the sport across all time zones.
On the first day, the first gold medal was won by Almaz Ayana of Ethiopia, who broke a long-standing world record in the women's 10,000 metres by almost fifteen seconds. The race as a whole was historically fast, setting four of the five fastest times ever for the distance and seeing eight national records broken.
China's Wang Zhen was the first male winner of the 2016 Olympic athletics, topping the 20 kilometers race walk podium. With her final throw of the event, Michelle Carter won the United States' first ever title in the women's shot put, preventing Valerie Adams from winning a third straight title.
The first half of the heptathlon saw two athletes set a world heptathlon best: Belgium's Nafissatou Thiam and Great Britain's Katarina Johnson-Thompson both cleared 1.98 m for the high jump.
The second day opened with a first in Olympic history as a man succeeded his brother as Olympic champion. In a dramatic final round, German discus thrower Christoph Harting moved up from fourth to gold medal position with a personal best throw and topped the podium as his brother Robert Harting had four years earlier.
Mo Farah - a double-Olympic champion from 2012 - defended his 10,000 m crown in spite of a fall which saw him slip to the back of the pack during the middle of race. Farah had been one of three gold medalists for Great Britain on a "Super Saturday" for the host nation at the 2012 London Games, but the two others of that day did not prevail in Rio de Janeiro.
Jessica Ennis entered as favorite for the Olympic heptathlon but was runner-up to Belgian Nafissatou Thiam in an upset which saw the 21-year-old add over three hundred points to her personal best score.
Defending Olympic long jump champion Greg Rutherford was reduced to third place as American Jeff Henderson won the closely fought men's competition.
Another defending champion was dethroned in the women's 100 metres: Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce's attempt to become the first person to win three straight Olympic track titles was thwarted by Jamaican teammate Elaine Thompson.
In the women's marathon, Jemima Sumgong won Kenya's first Olympic gold medal for that event.
In the women's triple jump Caterine Ibargüen won Colombia's first Olympic gold medal in athletics.
Usain Bolt achieved the feat fellow Jamaican Fraser-Pryce had failed to do one day earlier by taking his third straight Olympic 100 m title. This made him the most decorated athlete in the 100 m at the Olympics.
South Africa's Wayde van Niekerk provided the second world record performance of the athletics program with his win of the men's 400 meters in 43.03 seconds. This knocked 0.15 seconds of Michael Johnson's time which had gone unbeaten since 1999.
Poland's Anita Wlodarczyk was dominant in the hammer throw, becoming the first woman to throw beyond eighty meters three times in a competition and adding over a meter to her own world record with 82.29 m.
Another record was in sight for Ruth Jebet in the women's 3000 meters steeplechase, though she missed the mark by a second after slowing to celebrate winning Bahrain's first Olympic gold in any sport.
In the women's 400 m Allyson Felix was stopped from winning an historic fifth Olympic gold by Shaunae Miller of the Bahamas, who dove at the line to win the race.
Men's 800 meters world record holder David Rudisha defended his 800 m Olympic title, being the first man in over half a century to achieve that.
A surprise victory for the hosts came via Thiago Braz da Silva, who added ten centimeters to his previous best to win in an Olympic record of 6.03 m ahead of world record holder Renaud Lavillenie of France. Departing from Olympic traditions, the home crowd booed Lavillenie while he was attempting his final vault and he was booed again at the medal ceremony after comparing his treatment to that of Jesse Owens at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Nazi Germany. The partisan treatment was criticized by da Silva, IOC President Thomas Bach and IAAF president Sebastian Coe, though defended by some as an intrinsic part of Brazilian sporting culture.
Croatia's Sandra Perkovic became the only woman to defend an individual Olympic athletics title that year, topping the discus podium.
Christian Taylor became the only man in the field events to defend his 2012 Olympic title, repeating his American 1-2 finish with teammate Will Claye.
The United States was less successful in the men's 110 meters hurdles: its athletes failed to gain a medal for the first time ever (bar the 1980 boycott) while Jamaican Omar McLeod won by over a tenth of a second.
Faith Kipyegon was a clear winner in the women's 1500 meters ahead of Ethiopia's Genzebe Dibaba. Derek Drouin won Canada's first Olympic gold in athletics in twenty years in the men's high jump.
In the women's 5000 m heats American Abbey D'Agostino and Nikki Hamblin of New Zealand fell during the race. D'Agostino stopped to help Hamblin to her feet, but then struggled herself with an injured ankle, which led Hamblin to help in turn so the pair could finish. The pair were later given the Fair Play award by the International Fair Play Committee for their show of sportsmanship.
Ezekiel Kemboi failed to defend his Olympic steeplechase title, which went to his Kenyan teammate Conseslus Kipruto in an Olympic record time. Kemboi's initial bronze medal would have made him the first person to win three Olympic steeplechase medals, but a single step into the infield later saw him disqualified and Mahiedine Mekhissi-Benabbad of France achieve that feat in his place.
Tianna Bartoletta beat the favorite in the women's long jump, clearing a personal best of 7.17 m in the second to last round to leave her American rival Brittney Reese with a silver medal.
In the women's 100 m hurdles with Brianna Rollins, Nia Ali and Kristi Castlin forming the first ever Olympic medal sweep by a nation in that event.
High-profile eliminations came in the men's qualifiers as two strong contenders for Olympic titles, Pawel Fajdek in the hammer and Justin Gatlin in the 200 m, failed to progress.
Kerron Clement won the United States's 19th men's title in the 400 m hurdles finals.
Dalilah Muhammad became the first American female winner in the 400 m hurdles finals.
Ashton Eaton defended his decathlon title in an Olympic record score of 8893 points and in the men's shot put Ryan Crouser greatly improved his best to 22.52 m to break Ulf Timmermann's Olympic record from 1988 (among men's Olympic records, only Bob Beamon's long jump had stood for longer).
The women's javelin throw had an unexpected winner in Croatia's Sara Kolak, whose winning mark of 66.18 m meant the 21-year-old had improved her best by over eight meters that year.
In the men's 200 m, Usain Bolt took his third straight Olympic 200 m title by a margin of a quarter of a second.
The women's 4 × 100 meters relay heats featured the first ever re-run - Brazil has obstructed the American baton handover and the United States were allowed a solo run to qualify for the final on time, which they did.
In the men's 50 km walk Matej Tóth overtook defending champion Jarred Tallent to win Slovakia's first Olympic gold in athletics while Liu Hong returned China to the top of the women's 20 km walk podium.
Ekaterini Stefanidi of Greece won the women's pole vault after the pre-event favorites faltered.
Dilshod Nazarov made history in the men's hammer throw by becoming Tajikistan's first Olympic gold medalist. Vivian Cheruiyot achieved a first for her country in the women's 5000 meters by outrunning 10,000 m champion Almaz Ayana to take Kenya's first ever gold in the distance event. In that race, Cheruiyot set the last of eight Olympic records in Rio.
Allyson Felix became the most successful female Olympian in athletics with five gold medals.
Usain Bolt equaled Carl Lewis and Paavo Nurmi's record of nine Olympic gold medals in athletics.
Matthew Centrowitz Jr. secured a tactical win in the men's 1500 m.
Caster Semenya used her sheer speed to win the women's 800 m. Behind her Francine Niyonsaba won only the second ever medal for Burundi at the Olympics.
In the women's high jump, Ruth Beitia became Spain's first female Olympic champion in athletics, though this was overshadowed by the fact her winning mark was the lowest since 1980 and she was outperformed by two heptathletes in Rio.
Thomas Röhler cleared ninety meters to win the men's javelin throw. Mo Farah became the second most successful track athlete of the 2016 Rio Olympics by defending his 5000 m title, making him one of only two men alongside Finland's Lasse Virén to have defended both long-distance titles at consecutive Olympics.
The men's marathon was contested on the last day of the Olympics and Eliud Kipchoge comfortably won by the largest margin since 1972. The runner-up Feyisa Lilesa made a political protest by crossing his arms near the finish line in solidarity with the Oromo killed in protests that year and later suggested he would seek asylum.
The United States won the most medals in athletics and at thirteen golds and 32 overall they won more than double the next most successful nations. In the absence of Russia, Kenya and Jamaica placed second and third with six gold medals and the only other nations to win more than ten medals in total. In the 2016 Olympic athletics program, 141 medals were awarded and 43 nations reached the medal table.
When it comes to canoeing a new qualification system had been created for both slalom and sprint canoeing at the 2016 Olympic Games. The quotas were set for each event by the International Canoe Federation in August 2014.
In canoeing around 330 athletes participated in 16 events.
Cycling competitions had been contested in every Summer Olympics program since the first modern Olympiad in 1896 alongside athletics, artistic gymnastics, fencing and swimming.
Since the 1896 contests which featured five track events and a 87 km road race from Athens to Marathon and back, Olympic cycling had gradually evolved to include women's competitions, mountain bike and BMX to arrive at the current eighteen events.
In February 2013, the International Cycling Union (UCI) announced its intention to petition the IOC to extend the cycling program by three events for both men and women: the return of the points races (track event), a BMX freestyle event and a mountain bike eliminator but in August 2013 the IOC stated that the cycling program will be the same as in 2012. No changes were made to the 2016 Olympic cycling program compared to the cycling at the 2012 Olympics.
In cycling China took the gold and set a new world record in the first round of the Women's Team Sprint.
8 world records were made only in cycling.
The 2016 event was marked by returning champions in the individual events, and new nations winning the team events. 2012 Individual eventing champion Michael Jung retained his title, as did 2012 Individual dressage gold medalist, Great Britain's Charlotte Dujardin on Valegro. In jumping, veteran Nick Skelton, part of the gold medal winning Great Britain jumping team from 2012, returned to take the individual title on Big Star, his 2012 gold winning horse.
In the team equestrian events, Germany displaced Great Britain from the top step of the Team Dressage podium, with the 2012 winners in silver, and the United States taking an unexpected bronze ahead of traditional powerhouse, the Netherlands. In Eventing and Jumping, France won the team gold medals.
In equestrian, Germany, Great Britain and France dominated the medal table with two golds each, Germany leading by dint of four minor medals to the one silver each for France and Great Britain.
Around 212 fencers (an equal distribution between men and women; and eight came from the host nation Brazil) competed in 10 events (six individual and four team).
Similar to 2008 and 2012, the International Fencing Federation maintained the format of ten events and the rotation system, as the men's team sabre and the women's team foil have been dropped from the program only at these Games.
The Field hockey competitions had instituted several changes in the format and structure from the 2012 Summer Olympics. Twenty-four teams (twelve each for men and women) competed in the tournament.
On 20 March 2014, the International Hockey Federation (FIH) instituted the changes to the match format, reducing from two 35-minute halves to four 15-minute quarters, with 2 minutes' rest after each period, and 15 at halftime. The purpose of the changes aims to improve the flow and intensity of the competition, and reinforce fan experience and opportunity for game presentation and analysis. Other changes include the implementation of 40-second time outs following both penalty corner awards and the scoring of a goal. Both interruptions and time outs must assure that the 60-minute game time is escalated for actual tournament and not depleted with a penalty corner set up, especially when the ball is not in play. Games ending in ties in knockout rounds are decided by penalty shootouts, as overtime has been abolished since 2013.
The Games made use of about 400 footballs.
The 2016 Summer Olympics was the first time for golf to be played at the Olympics since the 1904 Summer Olympics and it is to feature two events, the men's and women's individual events.
In golf, the 120 (60 men and women) competitors played two separate (one for men, one for women) 72-hole (i.e. 4 rounds of 18 holes) individual stroke play tournaments under the official rules of golf. In the event of a tie for any of the first three positions, a three-hole playoff would have determined the medal winners.
The new Olympic golf course was built at the Reserva de Marapendi in the Barra da Tijuca zone. Hanse Golf Course Design was chosen from eight contenders to build the course. After the games, the course would become a public facility and would be used to enhance golf's profile within Brazil; according to the organizing committee, this would represent "one of the most important Olympic Games legacies for sport development in the country."
Both male and female golfers cited the Zika virus as cause to withdraw from the Games. The virus can live longer in semen than in blood, and might thus infect a male golfer's partner for up to six months later or even more, therefore also causing birth defects this way. Other reasons for the withdrawals have been suggested.
For the first time since the 1976 Olympics, Romania did not medal in the women's team event, due to Romania not qualifying a team for the first time since 1968, ending a 40-year medal run.
Modern pentathlon included five events - pistol shooting, épée fencing, 200.0 m (656.2 ft) freestyle swimming, show jumping, and a 3.200 km (1.988 mi) cross-country run.
Fencing, swimming, and show jumping were scored on a points system. Those points were then converted into a time handicap for the final combined event (pistol shooting and cross-country running), with the points leader starting first and each other competitor having a delayed start based on how many points behind the leader they were. This results in the finish order of the run being the final ranking for the event.
For the first time, the fencing event was in two rounds: the traditional round-robin stage plus a "bonus round."
The show jumping competition involved riding an unfamiliar horse over a course with 12 obstacles. The score was based on penalties for fallen bars, refusals, falls, and being over the time limit.
Rugby has not been featured in the Olympics since the 1924 Summer Olympics in any form. The IOC chose to re-introduce the seven-a-side version of the sport for the games. The sport will feature for the 2020 Summer Olympics.
In sailing, the keelboat discipline has been dropped meaning that both women's (Elliott 6m) and men's (the Star) are not part of the program. This is the first time the Olympics have not featured a keelboat.
The multihull discipline in sailing has been reintroduced using the Nacra 17 since the Tornado was dropped for London 2012.
The mixed gender event premiered for the first time in Olympics Sailing.
Women's skiff discipline has been added using the same equipment as the men's skiff discipline but with a slightly reduced sailplan 49erFX.
On 10 November 2012, the delegates at the International Sailing Federation's General Assembly voted to keep windsurfing at the 2016 Olympic Games, overturning the ISAF Council's decision which had already been partially implemented within ISAF Events and Rankings. Kiteboarding was overruled in replacing windsurfing and kitesurfing.
The location for sailing events was a source of concern for athletes since scientists had found drug-resistant super bacteria in Guanabara Bay due to the daily dumping of hospital waste and household raw sewage into the rivers and ocean. The Brazilian federal government's Oswaldo Cruz Foundation lab also found the genes of super bacteria in a river that empties into Guanabara Bay. Just before the games the launch ramp collapsed but no one was injured.
The most significant change to the rules in shooting was the new final format for all Olympic events, where all finalists must start from scratch. Also all finals feature an elimination stage, until the competition ends up with duels between the two shooters to decide the gold and silver medals. Other ratified changes include decimal scoring for both air rifle and rifle prone, separate sighting and match firing periods, limited use of performance-enhancing rifle clothing and equipment, target throwing distance in skeet shooting, and adjustment of targets in the double trap.
In table tennis no nation was allowed more than two players per gender in the singles at these Games, so some players below the twenty-eighth position were given a qualifying place based on ranking.
Taekwondo competition at these Games featured a total of 128 athletes, 64 in each gender, and 16 in each of the eight weight categories. Each National Olympic Committee (NOC) was allowed to enter up to a maximum of eight competitors, four of each gender, based on the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) Olympic rankings, such that an athlete per NOC must be among the top six in each weight category.
Around 260 athletes (156 men and 104 women) competed in 15 different events according to their respective weight categories. Bulgaria and Russia were banned from participating in the sport due to multiple doping cases.
These games became known as "Lochtegate" when swimmer Ryan Lochte and three of his teammates claimed to be robbed outside a gas station by men claiming to be police officers as a result of the scandal Lochte was suspended from all swimming competitions for 10 months while his teammates got four.
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