Contrary to a popular misconception, the title of the film does not refer to Nathan Algren, or even Katsumoto, as the Last Samurai. The word "Samurai" here is in its plural form and is actually referring to Katsumoto's clan as a whole.
Tom Cruise narrowly escaped potentially fatal injuries after a sword was swung within one inch of his neck while filming. He and his co-star Hiroyuki Sanada were acting out a sword fight scene when the incident happened. Sanada swung a sword at Cruise who was on an off-camera mechanical horse at the time. But the machine reportedly malfunctioned and failed to duck at the right moment. Sanada stopped the blade just one inch from his neck.
Filming took place in New Zealand, mostly in the Taranaki region, with Japanese cast members and an American production crew. This location was chosen due to the fact that Egmont/Mt. Taranaki resembles Mt. Fuji, and also because there is a lot of forest and farmland in the Taranaki region. This acted as a backdrop for many scenes, as opposed to the built-up cities of Japan. Several of the village scenes were shot on the Warner Brothers back lot in Burbank, California. Some scenes were shot in Kyoto and Himeji, Japan. There were thirteen locations altogether.
Critical reception in Japan was generally positive. Tomomi Katsuta of "The Mainichi Shinbun" thought that the film was "a vast improvement over previous American attempts to portray Japan", noting that Director Edward Zwick "had researched Japanese history, cast well-known Japanese actors and consulted dialogue coaches to make sure he didn't confuse the casual and formal categories of Japanese speech." However, Katsuta still found fault with the film's idealistic, "storybook" portrayal of the samurai, stating: "Our image of samurai is that they were more corrupt." As such, he said, the noble samurai leader Katsumoto "set his teeth on edge."
Historically, the only westerners fighting in the Japanese civil war were French military advisers under Jules Brunet, who joined the Shogun's army. Even if most of them were fighting with French equipment, some, like Eugene Collache, wore samurai attire.
The swords used in the film are the folded steel Orchid katanas by Paul Chen. Originally blue, they were painted red to match the armor of the Samurai that Algren kills in his first engagement with Katsumoto's men. It is the same armor that Taka dresses Algren in for the final battle. In all, seven live blades were purchased for the production from Ameurasiart in the United States.
This film was inspired by a project developed by Writer and Director Vincent Ward. Ward became Executive Producer on the film, working in development on it for nearly four years. After approaching several directors (among them Francis Ford Coppola, and Peter Weir), he interested Edward Zwick. The film went ahead with Zwick as director and was shot in Ward's native New Zealand.
When the Samurai are summoned to Tokyo to meet the Emperor, they are seen entering the city on horseback as Simon Graham (Tim Spall) is photographing two geisha with a large 8x10 View Camera. The movie then cuts to what he is seeing on the camera's large focusing screen, two geisha standing close to each other while looking into the camera. However the image on his focusing screen is shown as a sepia toned black & white image, not in true color as it would be in real life. This was pure creative genius on behalf of the director since color photography had only been recently invented, was very complex and not widely available. Instead the 8x10 B&W silver halide on glass film plate used by Simon Graham would have had a similar sepia toned look when developed.
The scene in which Captain Nathan Algren simulates a reload under fire for a Japanese recruit is reminiscent of a similar scene in an earlier Edward Zwick film Glory (1989). Matthew Broderick's character simulated fire by firing an identical sidearm up into the air, as opposed to Nathan Algren firing around his Japanese recruit.
First feature to use the new Kodak Vision2 500T 5218 film stock - the successor of the previous Vision 500T 5279. However, it was released later than Seabiscuit (2003) which uses the same film stock, but at a later date.
Chad Lindberg played a Winchester Rep Assistant in the film. He would later have a supporting role in the television series Supernatural (2005), which is led by main characters Sam and Dean Winchester.
The trivia items below may give away important plot points.
The real-life counterpart to Katsumoto (played by Ken Watanabe) is Takamori Saigo, who led a samurai rebellion in 1877. As in the movie, Saigo ended up committing suicide in September 1877 after defeat in battle. The Emperor's attitude in the film toward Katsumoto's struggle and death reflects actual Japanese popular sentiment toward Saigo, who though defeated, was regarded as a hero; a statue of Saigo was erected shortly after his death, and can today be seen in Ueno, in northeast Tokyo.
When Taka starts to undress for Captain Algren, there is a shot with her clothes slightly below her shoulders, looking backwards over her shoulder. This is an homage to Hishikawa Moronobu's ukiyo-e painting "Backwards Beauty".
The characters of Frank T. Hopkins (Viggo Mortensen) in Hidalgo (2004) and of Nathan Algren (Tom Cruise) in this movie have very similar traumatizing backgrounds. They both suffer from P.T.S.D. from helping, or aiding in the massacre of Native Americans, they lose themselves in alcohol, and work 1800s Wild West-type shows, followed by receiving an offer to travel to a foreign land for a large amount of money, and are wholly changed by the experience.
At the beginning, the Japanese soldiers, who are trained by the Americans, are using American-made Model 1861 Springfield muskets and British-made Pattern 1853 Enfield muskets, no doubt surplus from the American Civil War (which ended eleven years before the beginning of the movie). At the final battle, however, the now better trained and better equipped army can be seen using Prussian-made Gewehr 1871 bolt-action Mausers, a single-shot, bolt-action, black-powder cartridge rifle. This rifle, unlike modern bolt-action rifles, had no magazine (the Model 1871/84 would add a tubular magazine). This equipment update is also reflected in the dress of the Japanese soldiers, which abandoned the American 1870s look of the first part of the movie and adopted a stern, militaristic Prussian look (dark blue blouse, white gaiters, the more military style cap of a professional army instead of a French-style kepi then used by the U.S. Army). This is because the elite Japanese units during this time were trained by Prussia, and the Model 1871 Mauser was widely exported during the 1870s-1880s and was not fully replaced even in Prussian/German service until 1889.